Mom tongue or first language is probably probably the most favourite factor for any individual. The query of language has resulted into many conflicts and discontentment. The prime instance of such discontentment is the Language Motion of 1952 in Bangladesh. Then again we cannot reside in isolation. We’ve to keep in touch with the audio system of different languages. Bangladesh is taken into account to be a monolingual nation through which greater than 98% of the inhabitants is audio system of Bangla language. Nonetheless, there are greater than ten languages in such a small nation like Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain, Tipra- are simply among the different languages current in Bangladesh.
The attention-grabbing factor is that Urdu is a Indo-European language however written in Arabic script, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language household whereas Chakma belongs to the Chinese language-Barmese language group. So, though Bangladesh is commonly portrayed as a rustic of linguistic unity primarily based on Bangla language in actuality it has notable linguistic range. To speak with the audio system of different languages we both have to know their language or talk in a Lingua-Franca that’s understandable to each of us.
Right now, the world has turn out to be a world village. Due to the development of communication system and know-how. Each nation depends on others for commerce and commerce, training, politics and so on. In consequence, we’ve got to consistently talk with different international locations and audio system of different languages. Third world international locations like Bangladesh must depend upon overseas assist as a result of they aren’t self-sufficient. In consequence, many foreigners come to Bangladesh. A 3rd issue is the issue of faith. The sacred language of the Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for the Buddhists and Latin for the Christians.
All these elements remind us the need for studying different language(s) along with our mom tongue. In line with this actuality many international locations of the world have adopted a European language as second language which is commonly utilized in training, regulation court docket, financial actions and authorities works. These languages have more often than not official standing within the structure of these international locations. Most of the instances the international locations have adopted the language of their previous colonial rulers because the second language. Typically these languages are additionally referred to as official language. In lots of African international locations we will see this image. Then again, some European languages have turn out to be essential on this planet for literary and financial functions. For instance, German and French are thought-about to be necessary languages of the world as a result of each of them have influential literature and financial facets related to them.
For instance, many individuals in our nation have an interest to study French as a result of it could assist them to get UN jobs and jobs in Multinational firms. One other engaging motivation for studying French in Bangladesh is that it could assist us to immigrate to Canada as talent in French language provides an individual some further factors within the level system of Canadian immigration.
The title of my analysis is “Standing of English in Bangladesh: Second language or overseas language?” I’ve chosen this matter as a result of from sociolinguistic viewpoint the standing of English is a really attention-grabbing one. On the one hand English language is dominantly current in each aspect of our nationwide life whereas alternatively in our structure it’s clearly declared that the language of the nation is Bangla. In actual fact, nothing is claimed concerning the standing of English language in our structure. On one hand, financial actions within the non-public firms are carried out in English whereas there’s a authorities regulation (Bangla procholon ain1987) that authorities workplaces should use Bangla of their official works. So from the federal government viewpoint Bangla is the national- official language of Bangladesh and English is an important overseas language. However in actuality English is the second language of the nation and in lots of locations English is extra necessary than Bangla in Bangladesh.
A second language is any language apart from the primary, or native, language discovered; it’s usually used due to geographical or social causes. The time period is to be distinguished from overseas language; linguist Eric Lenneberg makes use of second language in his crucial interval speculation to imply a language consciously discovered or utilized by its speaker after puberty. Generally, folks by no means obtain the identical stage of fluency and comprehension of their second languages as of their first language.
Traditionally in Europe, probably the most extensively used second language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It was utilized by the Church; by the Legislation (because it nonetheless is in the present day); in Drugs (beginning a lot later); Horticulture and organic classification of crops, animals, fruits, nuts, and so on.
Latin was used a lot throughout Europe that it was referred to as the vulgar (or widespread tongue); that is why the Latin model of the Bible is named the Vulgate.
These days, English is taken into account the world’s most widespread second language; it’s utilized in areas as various because the web, tv and radio, and worldwide aviation.
The success of English all through the world stems from two main causes: the far reaching affect of the British Empire, and the twentieth century (and persevering with) dominance of the USA within the fields of enterprise and leisure.
French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of time period) in Europe. In historical past, each England and France have been dominated by a single crown – the language utilized by the royal court docket was French (English was thought-about “the peasant’s language”). Afterwards, as was the case with English, the French empire unfold its language by way of colonization. French continues to be one of many world’s most generally spoken languages. (Supply: Wikipedia)
If we take a look at the definition of second language then we will simply say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It’s extensively utilized in many components of our nationwide life. Many individuals watch English tv channels and likewise use Web. The scholars have to review it for twelve years and those that wish to be part of civil service by attending BCS examination even have to sit down for English examination. The one factor that’s lacking from the above definition is the truth that aside from formal events nobody speaks in English in Bangladesh. It’s not the language utilized in residence amongst relations and amongst buddies in casual dialog.
A overseas language is a language not spoken by the indigenous folks of a sure place: for instance, English is a overseas language in Japan. Additionally it is a language not spoken within the native nation of the individual referred to, i.e. an English speaker dwelling in Japan can say that Japanese is a overseas language to her or him.
Some kids study a couple of language from beginning or from a really younger age: they’re bilingual. These kids might be stated to have two mom tongues: neither language is overseas to that baby, even when one language is a overseas language for the overwhelming majority of individuals within the baby’s beginning nation. For instance, a baby studying English from her English mom in Japan can communicate each English and Japanese, however neither is a overseas language to her. (Supply- Wikipedia)
From the above definition, it’s seen that overseas language refers to a language that isn’t native to an individual. From this viewpoint English might be thought-about as a overseas language in Bangladesh since it isn’t native in our nation. Hardly any Bangladeshi individual speaks in English though a lot of them use it in training and enterprise.
An official language is one thing that’s given a singular standing within the international locations, states, and different territories. It’s usually the language utilized in a nation’s legislative our bodies, although the regulation in many countries requires that authorities paperwork be produced in different languages as nicely.
Formally acknowledged minority languages are sometimes mistaken for official languages. Nonetheless, a language formally acknowledged by a state, taught in colleges, and utilized in official communication shouldn’t be essentially an official language. For instance, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are solely formally acknowledged minority languages, not official languages within the strict sense.
Half of the international locations on this planet have official languages. Some have just one official language, similar to Albania, France, or Lithuania, even though in all these international locations there are different native languages spoken as nicely. Some have a couple of official language, similar to Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa, and Switzerland.
In some international locations, similar to Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there’s an official language for the nation, however different languages are co-official in some necessary areas. Some international locations, similar to Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu, and the USA don’t have any official languages.
The official languages of some former colonies, usually French or English, aren’t the nationwide languages or probably the most extensively spoken language.
In distinction, as a consequence of nationalism, Irish is the “nationwide language” of the Republic of Eire and its first official language, though it’s spoken by solely a small fraction of its folks. English, which is spoken by the bulk, is described solely because the second official language (Structure of Eire, Article 8).
In some international locations, the problem of which language is for use in what context is a significant political subject.(Supply-Wikipedia)
From the above definition, it’s seen that the notion of official language is difficult. In line with our structure English cannot be termed because the official language of Bangladesh because it has no standing in our structure. The one language that’s talked about in our structure is Bangla. However English is allowed in our parliament and plenty of authorities occasions. For instance, when there’s a authorities occasion through which some foreigners attend then in lots of instances the audio system use English language. Many necessary authorities paperwork are written each in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are stored into these two languages. When a authorities physique organizes a good then typically the memento is revealed in English.
Concerning the language of the nation the Bangladeshi structure clearly states:
“The state language.
The state language of the Republic is [Bangla].”
Within the structure nothing is talked about concerning the standing of English. English shouldn’t be talked about as a second language or official language. So if we take the standing of English in our structure then we can not declare that English is a Second language or Official Language in Bangladesh.
English in Legislation court docket in Bangladesh:
After Independence the federal government took the initiative to implement Bangla language in regulation court docket. In consequence, now the decrease courts perform their actions in Bangla however English is but very influential in Excessive Court docket and Supreme Court docket. If a lawyer needs to observe in Supreme court docket then he will need to have a superb command over English language. Most of the judges nonetheless give their verdicts in English language. Evidently this pattern of utilizing English will stay for the forcible future.
English in Schooling sector in Bangladesh:
Formal and institutionalized training system began in Bangladesh in the course of the British rule. At the moment Bangladesh was a part of British India. There was a debate concerning the medium of training. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium ought to be English slightly than Sanskrit or Persian. Through the British interval the medium of training was largely in English. Calcutta College took an initiative in 1935 to introduce Bangla as a medium of training together with English. In Bangladesh the usage of Bangla in faculty stage began within the Sixties. Now college students can reply within the examinations in Bangla or English. Within the faculty stage and college stage after 1971 the federal government tried to patronize Bangla and implement it by changing English within the training sector however this didn’t got here into actuality due to some fundamental issues. The primary downside is that there have been not sufficient books of any area in Bangla language. This downside is extra acute in science and know-how. For instance, there are nearly no books in Bangla about pc know-how that can be utilized as a reference ebook within the College stage.
Really there are three sorts of training methods in our country- Bangla medium, English medium, and Madrasa system. Bangla medium colleges might be divided into two sections- authorities colleges, and kindergarten colleges. Within the kindergarten colleges extra emphasis is given on English language than authorities colleges. A number of the well-known kindergarten colleges of Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower, and so forth. Though these colleges belong to Bangla medium the scholars have to review 3-4 English books like: Radiant Method, Lively English, Desk Work, Elementary English, Brighter Grammar, and so forth. Then again within the authorities colleges there’s primarily one English ebook (English for Right now) which is revealed by Bangladesh Textual content Ebook Board. The English medium colleges don’t observe Bangladeshi training system and are below the supervision of British Council. The medium of instruction in these colleges is English and lots of the college students of English medium are even very weak in Bangla language. There are two sorts of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrassas aren’t acknowledged by the federal government and don’t obtain any help from the federal government. On this Madrassas emphasis is given on studying Arabic, Persian, and Urdu whereas Bangla and English are uncared for. Then again in Dakhil Madrassas emphasis is principally given on Arabic and Bangla and English aren’t a lot uncared for.
So we will clearly see that the distinction in training system in Bangladesh is solely primarily based on the distinction within the medium of training. Though Bangla is the Nationwide-Official language of Bangladesh it’s the English medium training institutes who get extra money. The rise of personal universities has solely elevated the standing and significance of English language in Bangladesh. There are actually greater than 50 non-public Universities in Bangladesh and the medium of training in all of them is English. These universities cost 2 lakh to five lakh taka for Bachelor course. If the medium of training was in Bangla then hardly any pupil or mother and father would get to pay such enormous cash for the training in non-public universities.
From the above dialogue it’s clear that in our normal training system English has equal if no more significance than Bangla. In our training system English is basically the Second language as all the scholars have to review it as a obligatory topic for twelve years.
English and Administration:
Through the language motion the folks of Bangladesh have been afraid that if Urdu was established because the State Language of Pakistan then all the federal government actions will probably be carried out in Urdu and our folks will undergo. On account of the language motion, the Pakistani Regime stored on finishing up authorities actions in English language. After Bangladesh grew to become unbiased the federal government of Awami League determined to interchange English with Bangla in administrative works however after the demise of Sheikh Mujib this course of got here to a halt and English continued to stay because the dominant language. It was in the course of the rule of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was created and applied. From that point English began to lose its significance in administration. Nonetheless, it needs to be talked about that each one the worldwide communication of Bangladesh authorities is carried out by way of English.
English in Financial actions:
The financial system of Bangladesh depends on overseas aids and export of some widespread objects like prepared made clothes, jute, tea, fish and so on and likewise we import quite a lot of issues. Bangladesh shouldn’t be autonomous economically. Buying and selling is extra widespread than manufacturing. Buying and selling requires fixed communication with overseas firms. Most of the firms who’re concerned in buying and selling have to make use of English in coping with foreigners. Suppose, an organization is doing buying and selling with China which isn’t an English talking nation. Then the corporate has to contact the Chinese language firm in English. If we take a look at the ads of the non-public sector jobs then we will simply discover that many of the job ads are posted in English. Even many of the non-public sector job ads which can be posted in Bengali newspapers are posted in English. Nearly all of the non-public jobs state that the candidates will need to have good proficiency in English language. Nearly all the general public restricted firms publish their annual experiences in English. A few of these firms produce a Bangla model of their annual report however the emphasis is at all times on English. So it’s clear that English is the dominant language in our financial actions.
Comparability of English with Arabic, Sanskrit, and Pali in Bangladesh:
Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the non secular languages of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists respectively. Even the uneducated folks attempt to study these languages as they’re thought-about to be holy. If we examine the training of English with these languages then we will see that English is given extra significance. For instance, the tutoring charge of a English teaching heart is way increased than that of an Arabic teaching centre. English non-public tutors get 4-5 instances extra money than Arabic non-public tutors (Huzur). So though Arabic has non secular sentiment connected to it English is taken into account to be extra necessary because it has financial profit.
Comparability of English overseas languages like French, German, and Farsi:
French and German have turn out to be extremely popular for financial causes in our nation. Studying these languages assist us to extend our risk to get a UN job. Studying French can be useful for getting immigration to Canada. Additionally there are good amenities to study these languages in Dhaka College, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Not too long ago, the English Institute of North South College has launched French course. Then again in the course of the Muslim reign Farsi was the language of the Royal administration and regulation court docket in Bangladesh. At current, a pupil can attend Farsi course for one semester by simply paying tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Heart however there aren’t many college students who’re to study Farsi, French, and German. Then again, a whole bunch of scholars every year seem for TOEFL and IELTS exams in English language.
From the above image it’s clear that the standing of English is way increased than overseas languages like German, French, and Farsi. We cannot deny the fact that if an individual is nice at English then he can earn cash in any a part of Bangladesh but when an individual is nice at French, German, or Farsi he has hardly any scope to earn cash by utilizing his abilities in these languages.
From the dialogue to date there is no such thing as a doubt that English is the second language of Bangladesh however this actuality shouldn’t be mirrored in our structure. Formally Bangladesh shouldn’t be generally known as an ESL nation to the skin world. So Bangladesh ought to be declared as an ESL nation by the federal government with none delay. We study English not as a result of we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We study English from out of day-after-day necessity. If Bangladesh is said as an ESL nation and English language is given a transparent standing within the structure then it is not going to solely mirror the fact but in addition it can assist us internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperately making an attempt to draw overseas buyers. Earlier than any firm involves Bangladesh for exploring the funding alternatives one of many key areas they might search for is the supply of pool of English graduates and so they additionally count on that the conventional staff could have fundamental understanding of English language. If we turn out to be an ESL nation then these overseas firms whereas looking out about Bangladesh will get assured concerning the robust presence of English language on this nation.
The identical image is there about instructional sector. Many Bangladeshi college students wish to go to developed international locations like USA, UK , Canada, and Australia for increased training. If Bangladesh is said as an ESL nation then these college students will probably be benefited as a result of then the Universities of these international locations will get the concept that English has particular significance in Bangladesh.
So I like to recommend to the federal government of Bangladesh that English ought to be declared because the second language of the nation by amending the structure.
Bangladesh is the one nation on this planet whose folks sacrificed their lives for the language. Now the historic language motion of 1952 is acknowledged internationally because the Worldwide Mom Language Day. It’s true that our individuals are emotional about their language, Bangla. Nonetheless, it’s equally true that now our folks have turn out to be determined about getting expert in English language. In consequence, there are greater than fifty non-public universities now in Bangladesh. If North South Supplied BBA and Pc Science programs in Bangla medium then they might not get even 10% of the variety of college students they’ve now. It’s now good time that we end the good contradiction concerning the language subject and declare Bangladesh as an ESL nation for our personal profit.
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